Tag Archives: nas

Debian Jumbo Frames

2 NAS servers both with 802.3ad bonded gigE nics based on the Realtek 8169 chip.
The highest MTU I could set was 7000 even though the D-Link DGS-1210-24 Rev. A switch can support up to 10k.

Below is just a single sample, but all tests stayed within 57x Mbits for MTU=1500 and 77xMbits for MTU=7000.

The important bits.
iperf was used for this testing.

MTU 1500:
[ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 687 MBytes 576 Mbits/sec

MTU 7000:
[ 3] 0.0-10.0 sec 926 MBytes 777 Mbits/sec

Barracuda Green ST2000DL003


Reformatted a bit to fit on page.

I have 6 of these (2TB) in each NAS Raid5 setup plus motherboard, AMD cpus, RAM etc.
This page is for researching a replacement PSU.

2.8.1 Power consumption
Power requirements for the drives are listed in Table 2 on page 15. Typical power measurements are based on an average of drives tested, under nominal conditions, using 5.0V and 12.0V input voltage at 25°C ambient temperature.

• Spinup power Spinup power is measured from the time of power-on to the time that the drive spindle reaches operating speed.

• Read/write power and current
Read/write power is measured with the heads on track, based on a 16-sector write followed by a 32-ms delay, then a 16-sector read followed by a 32-ms delay.

• Operating power and current
Operating power is measured using 40 percent random seeks, 40 percent read/write mode (1 write for each 10
reads) and 20 percent drive idle mode.

• Idle mode power
Idle mode power is measured with the drive up to speed, with servo electronics active and with the heads in a random track location.

• Standby mode
During Standby mode, the drive accepts commands, but the drive is not spinning, and the servo and read/write electronics are in power-down mode.

Table 2 DC power requirements
Avg (watts 25°C) Avg 5V typ amps Avg 12V typ amps
Spinup — — 2.1
Idle* † 4.5 0.151 0.303
Operating 5.8 0.440 0.300
Standby 0.50 0.085 0.01
Sleep 0.50 0.085 0.01

Avg (watts 25°C) Avg 5V typ amps Avg 12V typ amps
Spinup 2.1
Idle* † 4.5 0.151 0.303
Operating 5.8 0.440 0.300
Standby 0.50 0.085 0.01
Sleep 0.50 0.085 0.01

*During periods of drive idle, some offline activity may occur according to the S.M.A.R.T. specification, which may increase acoustic and power to operational levels.
†5W IDLE, Standby and Sleep,with DIPLM Enabled

Seagate ST32000542AS 2TB Setup

A lot of ST32000542AS drives come with the CC34 firmware. Apparently it has various known problems, one of which is an annoying click (click of death). The first thing you’ll want to do is upgrade the firmware to CC35. A Link to the instructions is in the references section below.

Once that is done, the next step, if it exists, is removing HPA from the drive.
You’ll know it has HPA enabled by running hparm. HPA results in less capacity and so it’s not a good thing in an array.

We’ll be using Debian 6.0 (squeeze).

hparm -N /dev/sdb

You should see a difference in the numbers here. I chose to take the highest number. This completely disables HPA.

hdparm -N p3907029168 /dev/sdb

Finally, we should end up with full usability of the drive.

fdisk -l /dev/sdb

Disk /dev/sdb: 2000.4 GB, 2000398934016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 243201 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

Disk /dev/sdb doesn’t contain a valid partition table

Power cycle (not reboot) to confirm settings survive.

Updating the firmware on the drives:
Seagate 2TB ST32000542AS CC35 Firmware upgrade

Disabling HPA using hdparm:
unRAID Server Community parity

Debian Squeeze iscsitarget

Since Debian squeeze doesn’t appear to include pre-built iscsitarget kernel modules, the iscsitartget-dkms must be installed. This is a source package and will install gcc etc to compile. It should compile automatically.

apt-get install iscsitarget-dkms

Here is a list of iscsi related packages I installed on my secondary NAS:
iscsitarget iSCSI Enterprise Target userland tools
iscsitarget-dkms iSCSI Enterprise Target kernel module source – dkms version
open-iscsi 2.0.871.3-2squeeze1 High performance, transport independent iSCSI implementation

I found this info in a bug report through google after I received a module not found error when issuing a /etc/init.d/iscsitarget restart

Debian NAS

I wanted a centralized home storage system that could feed all my other toys. Data stored on this will include MySQL datafiles, our MP3 collection, website directories and all our receipts printed out in PDF format (Yay! CutePDF) among other things. And so the fun began…

I did some test installs of various “turnkey” solutions such as Openfiler.

Openfiler just didn’t seem stable enough. Arrays would claim to have faulty drives and start rebuilding the arrays at the strangest times. Only to find out, via 3rd party tools, that the drive was fine. The web interface was ok but I would have organized it differently. Minus that, Openfiler has a lot of potential.

In the end, for what I wanted, it was easier to do a netinstall of Debian and add the things I needed.

Started with this: Debian RAID

Raid5 first
Raid1 with leftovers
Flat filesystem
Swap on Raid5

Bad mainboard
Bad harddrive
BIOS truncation of HD hardware address forcing me to "find" the bootdisk manually.

ECS RS482-M754 w/ AMD Sempron 3200+ (Bundled)
4x Seagate Barracuda 7200.10 ST3250620AS 250GB
2x AllComponents 512MB 184-Pin SDRAM DDR 400

The mainboard had problems POSTing but I couldn't really determine if it was board, memory or CPU, so it (board, memory and processor) was replaced with:

AMD Sempron 64 3400+ Manila 1.8GHz Socket 754
2x Kingston 512MB 240-Pin SDRAM DDR2 800

Ended up having a dodgey harddrive too. Awaiting the RMA return. But that didn't stop the project, it's just running without a spare at the moment.

NFS with assigned ports: Securing NFS

This is used for our websites' files and MP3 collection. The MP3's are accessed internally via Jinzora and accessed via laptops, HTPC's etc.

9 times out of 10, we're accessing the NAS interactively from laptops running windows. I didn't really look for a site that explained how to setup Samba on Debian. Just knit picked around google until my shares were up and running.

AoE for database files: AoE on Debian

First, the above URL is not quite complete, it's missing a few steps, which I have outlined below.

There are some security risks one should be aware of when implementing AoE. One item is the ability to X-mount an AoE LUN on another server causing corruption and all sorts of other nastiness. I've heard there are certain implementations that allow MAC filter and other security mechanisms to make this more secure. But in the end, you will still be shipping data in the clear over the wire.

I decided the ease of use were worth the risks.

Given that data files were going to live on the AoE devices, I wanted some extensive, longterm testing. I kept the originals and did some link chicanery for the test.

As I stated earlier, the AoE How-To linked is not complete but still makes a decent starting point. Below is a quick step-by-step.

Keep in mind the initiator is the "client" and the target is the "server". These are Debian specific instructions.

Install the client tools
apt-get install aoe-tools

Create the /dev structure
aoe-mkdevs /dev/etherd

apt-get install vblade

Create a device to export
lvcreate -n myAoE --size 10g my_vg0

Export device in userland for testing
vblade 0 1 eth1 /dev/my_vg0/myAoE &


List AoE devices

Create filesystem on device
mkfs.ext3 /dev/etherd/e0.1

Mount our new AoE device
mount /dev/etherd/e0.1 /data

And there you have it. In the end, I have 500GB of usable space in the first array. This includes a spare. All told, $415 delivered from NewEgg.

Next, I will be adding 4x 500GB drives for another array. At the current prices, you just can't beat the $ per GB.